What are wood pellets
Wood pellets are pressed granules for heating. They are made from agricultural wastes (sunflower seed husks, cane and corn stalks, straw and dung) as well as lumbering and woodworking wastes (flinders, sawdust, bark).
It is a completely new kind of fuel. It utilizes wastes, does not lead to harmful exhausts into the atmosphere, does not waste irreplaceable resources of the planet, can be put into boiler automatically, evolving enough heat during burning for acceptable price. It is a biofuel of the future.
The most popular are wood heating pellets. FRP Company produces light pellets of high quality from conifer woods.
Wood pellets: manufacturing method
The manufacturing method is related with necessity of utilizing or processing sawdust.
- Wood shavings are put through stone catcher and big particle filter.
- The raw material is dried out so that humidity level of finished wood pellets would be the same for all fuel granules.
- Dried wood shavings are cut in the grinder to the size of 4-6 mm. For getting 1 ton of pellets we use 8 cbm of wood wastes.
- Prepared material is delivered into the bin where humidity is kept at a level of 10-15%. Humidity and temperature should be equal for all the volume of raw material. This will lead to equally high quality of wood pellets.
- During compressing wooden biomass the heat is generated which makes wood-pulp warm. Wood contains lignin that shows its adhesive properties and bypasses cellulose. That means you don’t need to use any adhesive materials while producing wood pellets.
- Fuel granules (pellets) are cooled down and packed into different bags (15 kg, Big bag 1000 kg).
The advantages of the pellets
The granular pellets have considerable advantages in comparison with other fuel types.
- Ecological purity and benefit. Wood pellets, while burning, don’t exhaust an enormous amount of CO2 accumulated for ages as it happens with coal. In other words, becoming worldly spread, this fuel will not contribute into global warmth caused by exhausting carbonic acid in the atmosphere. The combustion products don’t contain sulfur (as coal and diesel fuel do) – thus it reduces the quantity of acid rains. The amount of ash from pellets is 10-20 times less than from firewood.
- High level of calorific value: it’s higher than wood level and equal to heating value of coal.
- Effectiveness: wood pellets are made of waste materials and scrap.
- High portability that is explained with cylindrical shape of pellets: granules can spread easily with no hollows after heaping.
- Possibility of using in automatic boilers – owing to small size (4 or 5 cm long and 0,5-1 cm in diameter) granular pellets can be poured through pipes and hoses that makes possible automatic supply of biofuel in the stove.
Fuel granules (wood pellets) in Russia and abroad
In Russia, comparing with Western European countries, using pellets for heating is not so popular. The quantity of wood wastes could enable using wood pellets for heating throughout the country. Renewable wood resources of Russia could supply all countries of Europe and Asia with wood pellets. For the best result it’s recommended to set up a pellet boiler for heating with the help of wood pellets. Granules from wood waste can also be used in any boiler or stove working on solid fuel.
In Europe heating with granular pellets spread widely in 80’s in Sweden and later became popular in almost all Western European countries. Nowadays granular fuel is used for heating 2/3 of heated premises in Europe. Traditionally next to any woodworking plant they set up a shop producing pellets.
Wood is a renewable source of heat on Earth. Pellet granules and briquettes are the best alternative for any modern type of fuel.